There has been lots of reserach on human pheromones. The pheromones evaluation of all disruptive methods. including the influence of the treatment on mating of females, on male orientation behavior, and the extent of dispersal of male and female moths, particularly where plots are as small as those described in these pheromone experiments.
Pheromones in this formulation, parallel arrays of polymeric hollow fibers, made of polyester terephthalate and open at one end, are attached to strips of adhesive tape. The duration and rate of release of EEOH from each dispenser strip is governed by the diameter, length, and number of fibers. Learn more about pheromones at SpanishinPeru.org.
Hollow fiber tapes for mating disruption of codling moth have been used in three trials in the U.S. and Europe.
In the pheromone test undertaken by Cardé et al.,“ fibers (internal diameter, 200 mm; length, 1 cm) were filled with EEOH (99% pure) and 2% of the antioxidant BHT (2,6-di-tert- butyl-4-methyl phenol). Individual tapes held ten fibers, and 25 tapes were distributed throughout each tree in a I-ha plot to ensure a relatively uniform release of EEOH. In the laboratory the compound was liberated at 90 ng/ hr per fiber or 0.9 pg per tape per hour at 21°C. On the basis of this figure and, at the dispenser densities used in the field, EEOH would be liberated at about 1.5 mg (1.9 pt)/ha/hr.“ In the treated plot, fiber tapes were placed out at the beginning of the codling flight period in mid- May and left until the end of the season in late September. Learn more about Top Pheromones For Men in 2015 | Weebly.com.
Visual examination and chemical analysis indicated that only 10% of the EEOH remained in the fibers by early August. The effectiveness of the treatment was judged in terms of the reduction of male captures at traps baited with virgin females or EEOH when compared with numbers taken in control plots.
There was a 100% suppression of male catches at virgin females throughout most of the season, and 96% reduction at EEOH baits. On two occasions, there was an increase in captures in the treated plot, which was attributed by the researchers to lower release rates of EEOH. However, their data from the control plot suggest that there was a significant increase in numbers of males available for capture during this period, which may have contributed to the slight breakdown in pheromones disruption.
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Only limited experimental human pheromones details are available in published accounts of the other trials.“In the Swiss tests,“ 25 tapes each bearing 25 fibers (diameter given as 300 pm but unclear whether internal or external measurements) were distributed through-out each of 9 to 49 apple trees; the plot area is not cited. Reduction of captures of males at traps baited with virgin females or EEOH ranged from 85 to 88% in the small plots, to 90 to 98% over 6 weeks in the larger area; there was a greater effect on catches at virgin female sources than at EEOH. Release rates are not provided, but an approximate figure of 4 mg/ha/hr can be derived from other data given in the paper.“