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Pheromones Dispensers

Pheromones that orientation behavior of males was dramatically influenced by the human pheromones treatments but that close-range encounters between the sexes still led to mating. Too few tests have been undertaken to assess the practical value of hollow fiber tapes. Distribution of the tapes is labor-intensive but would be feasible in pomc fruit orchards where grower practices often involve attention to individual trees. The loss of pheromone compounds from hollow fiber arrays is generally almost linear,‘ and the rate can be readily modified by altering the size and number of fibers per tape. in terms of reducing wastage of EEOH, this method is superior to chopped hollow fibers and microencapsulation. Check out Max Attraction pheromones at

Pheromone Dispensers

Pheromone Evaporators made from rubber tubing have been used experimentally in Europe“'" and Australia.” The most common design consists of a 20-cm length of red rubber tubing (internal diameter, 2 mm; external diameter, 3 mm) loaded with 50 or 100 mg of EEOH. The tube ends are sealed with metal clips or rings, and the com- pound passes through the rubber walls at a rate that is largely determined by tempera- ture and the amount of EEOH remaining. The dispenser is protected by an aluminum foil“ or plastic cover. Learn about best pheromones to attract men at

In preliminary experiments in Switzerland,“ dispensers loaded with 100, 50, or 20 mg of EEOH were located at various densities in small apple blocks of from 0.05 ha to 0.25 ha in area. The effectiveness of the treatments was judged by the numbers of released and wild males captured at traps baited with EEOH or virgin females in treated and untreated plots. Check out | best pheromones for 2015

The mean release rates were estimated by weighing pheromone dispensers at intervals during the 3-month trial. The results indicated that males were unable to locate virgin females when the evaporation rate of EEOH exceeded 1 mg/ ha/hr, but some individuals were still trapped at EEOH sources. It is difficult to draw any firm conclusions from these data as only one EEOH or virgin female trap was used per treatment and the results cannot be analyzed statistically.

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 More comprehensive pheromone information was, however, obtained in a later trial’° in which rubber evaporators were set out in 0.4-ha plots at densities of 25, 44, and 400/ha; the amount of EEOH per dispenser at the different spacings was varied to maintain a constant rate of release per hectare.

The influence of the human pheromones treatments was again assessed in terms of reductions of male captures at EEOH-baited traps and mating of tethered virgin females placed at various heights in the apple trees. All treatments led to an 80 to 90% reduction in mating of the tethered females, but male captures at EEOH sources were only 60 to 70% lower than those in the controls; the mean rate of release of EEOH over the 3-month test period was 7 mg/ha/hr. Charmillot concluded that there had been a significant decline in fruit damage and numbers of overwintering larvae in plots subjected to EEOH treatments for two to four successive seasons. These experiments were, however, somewhat limited in terms of area treated and replication, and further trials would be necessary to establish whether the treatments were indeed largely responsible for the decrease in infestation.