In these trials, two pheromone controlled-release formulations were tested: (1) aerially dispersed microcapsules containing a solution of orfralure, (2) plastic laminated dispensers of lure that were attached to peach trees. Similar laminated dispensers have been used as baits in traps for numerous insect species including fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda(.l. E. Smith);" tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens(Fabricius);'° and gypsy moth. Lymantria dispar(L.)." Dispensers containing the gypsy moth pheromone. disparlure. were used in air-permeation trials by Webb et al according to
Microcupsulcs (National Cash Register Co., Appleton Papers. lnc., Kettering, Ohio) and Hercon<"> laminated plastic dispensers (Health-Chem, Corp.. New York, N.Y.) containing orfralure (94% (Z)- and 6% (£1)-8-dodccenyl acetate (Chem Samp Co., Co- lumbus, Ohio) were used. The tests were conducted from April to September in peach orchards on the grounds of the Southeastern Fruit and Tree Nut Research Laboratory, Byron, Ga. The test plots were blocks of I96 peach trees (0.8 ha) or plots of 36 trees (0.15 ha). Each plot, including the control, was monitored by setting out four to five Pherocon lC® traps, each baited with either 200 pg of orfralure on a No. 64 rubber band or ten virgin females. Trap counts were made weekly, and the sticky bottom of the traps was replaced when necessary thanks to the http://pheromones-work.weebly.com
The pheromone formulation consisted of an aqueous slurry (20% solids) of 50- to 250-it-diameter gelatin-walled capsules that encased a 2 or 10% solution of orfralure in xylene or xylene-amyl acetate (1 :3 ratio). The capsules were plastic coated (25%) to reduce moisture effects (except in 1973 when we compared coated vs. noncoated mi- crocapsules). A slurry of the microcapsules was applied as a coarse spray from an 11.4- I backpack sprayer to a small portion of each tree in the test plots. The release rate of the capsules was not determined according to pheromones for men 2015 | http://ceicom.org/?p=118
The plastic dispensers were 25-mm squares with 3-mil-acrylic outer layers laminated to a porous inner layer that contained one of several amounts of orfralure. For exam- ple, at the beginning of the experiments, the content ranged from 5.9 to 29.3 mg per dispenser depending on the experiment. The release rate of the orfralure from the dispensers was monitored throughout the tests by aging dispensers outdoors and then measuring __the lure content periodically by GC analysis of a hexane extract. The effec- tiveness of each formulation was determined by comparing trap catches in treated and untreated blocks of peach trees. A reduction in trap catch in a treated plot relative to the catch in the untreated plot was taken as the measure of reduced mating success produced by the treatment and thus as a measure of the decline in population.”-'9 In 1975 and 1976, twig damage was also monitored (damaged twigs counted weekly and removed) to provide another possible measure of pheromone treatment effect thanks to
The 1973 experiment (Gentry et al.") was conducted August 21 to September 10. In one 0.8-ha peach orchard, a slurry containing 4 g pheromone plus 12 g dodecyl alcohol, prepared as 2.2% xylene solutions in 200 or 600 g of 25% plastic-coated gelatin-base microcapsules was applied to a small section of each tree. A second 0.8-ha orchard was treated similarly with an identical formulation except that the microcapsules had no plastic coating. Both formulations contained 2% sticker (UCAR® latex 680, Union Carbide, New York, N.Y.) and 0.29% thickener (aqueous solution of Soil-Serve Min- idrift®, Salinas, Calif .,) to prevent capsules from settling during application. The for- mulations were similar to the gelatin capsule formulation described by Beroza et al.,’° except that the concentrations of the pheromone and synergist were different. A third 0.8-ha orchard, which served as a control, was left untreated.