Considerable effort was expended in an attempt to isolate pheromones. The female pink bollworm moths and reported that the synthesized chemical induced typical male premating behavior when caged males were exposed to the emanation from pipettes containing vapors of the material.
Propylure was therefore tested extensively as a bait for traps in 1967, but the results were disappointing: the bait attracted fewer pink bollworm male moths than did crude extracts of virgin female moths.” Learn more about pheromones at
Further, propylure was attractive in the field only after admixture with an activator identified as N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet)." Subsequently,” it was reported that cis-propylure acts as an inhibitor for trans-propylure, which partially explained the lack of attractancy of propylure in the field. Later,” additional evidence was provided that propylure was attractive to male pink bollworms in the laboratory and that a combination of hexalure and propylure was highly attractive in the field. Learn more at
Hummel et al.“ were unable to identify propylure or deet in female pink bollworms but identified a mixture of the Z,Z and Z,E- isomers of 7, hexadecadienyl acetate as the true pheromone and proposed the name “gossyplure”. The authors also found that a 1:1 ratio of the two isomers was the most attractive ratio on the basis of male moth trap catches. Bierl et al.“ confirmed their findings to pheromones accordings to research.
Flint et al.“ reported that in early season, traps baited with 500 pg (1:1 mixture of isomers) of gossyplure caught about 70 times more male pink bollworm moths than traps baited with 25 mg of hexalure. Also,” in early season a mixture of 60% Z,Z- isomer and 40% Z,E- isomer was more attractive than the 50% mixtures of the two isomers, but late in the season the 50070 mixture was equal to or more attractive than other ratios tested.
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Pink Bollworm Mating Disruption
Prior to identification of the pink bollworm sex pheromone and since the sex pher- omones of several species of Lepidoptera had been identified as alkenol acetates, Green et al.” synthesized several of these compounds and evaluated them as attractants for the pink bollworm. The cis-7-hexadecen-l-ol acetate (hexalure) was found to be a good male attractant that also elicited male copulatory responses in the laboratory.” Learn more at http://pheromones-work.weebly.com/home/pheromones-used-by-males
McLaughlin et al.” reported that continuous release of hexalure in amounts ranging from 70 to 700 mg per night per hectare from 25 mm diameter stainless steel planchets resulted in 93 to 99% reduction in the number of pink bollworm males caught in fe- male-baited traps. Also, foliar applications of hexalure, 10 pl droplets twice weekly every 2 m along alternate cotton rows of a 7.3-ha cotton field, reduced male moth catches in female-baited traps and multiple matings, but did not reduce larval infesta- tion in cotton bolls. The authors found that spacing between hexalure evaporation dispensers was not critical as long as the amount of hexalure released into the air above the crop was sufficient to prevent pheromone communication.
Subsequently,” two types of hexalure dispensers were investigated in cotton fields, as well as two spacings — closely spaced (dispensers 1 to 2 m apart) or widely spaced (dispensers up to 40 m apart). One type of dispenser consisted of a knot (10 pl hexalure per knot) tied in a loop of cotton string. These cotton loops (6250) contained a total of pheromone 53 g of hexalure per hectare and were distributed once a week in a 1 X 1.6-m grid on cotton plants in the field. The calculated rate of evaporation of the hexalure was 750 mg/ha/I0-hr night.